Archaeological research in situ is the exploration of the ground, subsoil, the seabed or the bed of lakes or rivers for the purpose of locating or discovering ancient monuments, whether such research constitutes excavation on land or underwater, surface research or scientific research carried out by geophysical or other methods. The archeological research in situ is classified in systematic excavations and rescue excavations.
Systematic excavations can be carried out by:
a) the Ministry of Culture (Archaeological Service)
b) Greek research or educational institutions specialized in the field of archaeological or paleo-ontological research
c) Foreign archaeological missions or schools established in Greece. For carrying out the excavations, a decision of the minister of Culture is required, following an opinion by the Central Archaeological Council.
In order to get an excavation permit (systematic excavation) the interested institution has to submit documentation proving: - the professionalism and reliability of the body to undertaking‚ the excavation - the excavation experience and the scientific authority of the director of the excavation - the inter-scientific composition of the team - the experience of the members of the scientific team in consolidation, conservation, protection and publication of the finds - adequacy of the technical infrastructure - adequacy of the budget and the program for excavation, conservation and publication of the finds. The applying institution has additionally to submit an analytical report providing prima facies evidence of the existence of monuments, defining the site to be excavated and documenting the expected contribution of the specific research to scientific knowledge and the need to proceed with the excavation.
Excavation for rescuing a monument that has been revealed in the course of a technical, public or private work, accidentally or due to natural causes or illegal excavation activity (rescue excavations) can only be carried out by the Ministry of Culture/Service. The archaeologist appointed by the Service has to have at least 3 years experience in excavations and should not have violated the time limits for the submission of the annual scientific reports (s.b). The rescue excavation, the conservation and the publication of the finds has to be financed by the owner of the work if it is a) a public technical work or b) private work with a budget of more than 587,000 Euro.
Publications: The directors of excavations or other archaeological research have to submit to the archaeological service following reports:
a) annual scientific reports, at the latest in April of the following year.
b) an initial presentation for publication within 2 years from the beginning of the systematic excavation, which has to contain a list of movables finds and drawings of the movable's
c) a final publication within 5 years from the completion of the systematic excavation.
d) a final report within 9 months from the completion of a rescue excavation
e) a final publication within 6 years from the completion of a rescue excavation
f) the final publication within 2 years from the completion of a surface or other archeological research
Foreign archaeological missions or schools established in Greece may manage per annum a maximum of:
a) 3 systematic excavations or other archaeological research
b) 3 systematic excavations in cooperation with the archaeological service.
c) 3 surface or other archaeological research
The direction of an excavation, which is carried out by the Service in co-operation with foreign archaeological schools are undertaken by an archaeologist appointed by the Archaeological Service. Excavations carried out by bodies other than the Archaeological Service are under its supervision. The Service is represented by an archaeologist having at least three years of excavation experience.